My first attempt at Systemic Functional Linguistics

SFL

When deciding how to approach authentic language in context, SFL offers a ‘way in’ by providing concrete tools for exploring language comprehensively and for making sense of the data. The Genre framework complements SFL. I will apply Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) approach and Genre framework to my analysis of the Doctor and Patient’s register with respect to the context.

The first reason for the interlocutors’ divergent views about the success of the discourse is the unequal power relationship, evident in the Doctor’s topic selection. The second reason is the Doctor’s predetermined agenda of being time efficient. The third reason is the Patient’s lack of Genre competence. As a result, the interlocutors co-created a context in which the Doctor made linguistic choices with the purpose to persuade the Patient about his expertise and to give advice, rather than to inform.

Firstly, I will consider the field or the experiential metafunction of language. There is only one existential process in line 7, uttered by the patient. Existential processes denote existence. There is one participant in this process: ‘a pain’. The word there is a subject but has no experiential meaning. Its function is to avoid the need for, or the possibility of, a second participant in the clause. The patient could have stated ‘it hurts here’ but this would weaken the ‘presentational meaning of the original’ (Thompson 2014). The patient is explicitly signalling that she is going on to give more detail about the ‘pain’. The function of the existential clause is simply to announce the existence of the situation, as a first step in talking about it. However, it will become apparent that the Doctor controls the topic and eventually removes the Patient’s autonomy in discussing her problem.

The patient reformulates the doctor’s question (line 2, 3) and changes the process from a mental to an identifying relational process. The patient sets up a relationship of identity between two concepts: ‘a heartburn’ as the token and ‘a sour stomach’ as the value. The function of an identifying  relational process is to identify a specific realization (a heartburn)  in terms of a more generalizable category (a sour stomach). The patient identified ‘heartburn’ as the specific holder of a more general role (a sour stomach). One of the symptoms of heartburn is a sour taste in the mouth caused by the acid reflux and ‘a heartburn’ is a more specific realization than ‘a sour stomach’, hence, the token is ‘heartburn’. However, the use of the vague term ‘or something’ ascribes ‘heartburn’ a more general role which could be attributed to other, more specific concepts. Despite heartburn causing pain in the chest, the doctor ignores the patient’s attempt at meaning making and proceeds with a medical examination, attempting to localise the pain. The Doctor enquires whether the pain ‘goes into the back’ (line 10), clearly ignoring the heartburn as the ‘token’. This could because the patient used a simile which has a figurative meaning. According to Thompson (2014), a Value-Token analysis guides us towards ‘the broader concerns’ of the patient. The former role of the ‘sour stomach’ (line 1) was that of a phenomenon. The patient recontextualised it as the value in line 2, 3. The Value ‘reveals what values the speaker (and ultimately the culture that s/he is part of) uses to categorise the Token that s/he deals with’ (Thompson, 2014). ‘The value is constrained by the demands of the particular task s/he has in hand’ (Thompson, 2014), i.e.: requesting a health service and seeking/giving a diagnosis. The Token-Value structure can ‘play a central role in the register and suggest wider ideological beliefs’ (Thompson, 2014). Perhaps the doctor was signalling that the patient needs to be more specific and align her register with his values. This may explain why the patient was ‘not quite sure that the doctor has addressed her actual problem’.

Lines 23 and 24 deserve extra attention. ‘I don’t know’ is a mental cognitive process that has no phenomenon. The senser is the patient. ‘Enough to make me sleep at night’ could be interpreted as ‘(I drink) (ellipsis) enough to make me sleep at night’. This would be a material transformative voluntary process with the Patient as the actor and ‘enough’ as the goal. ‘To make me sleep at night’ would be an adverbial clause modifier of manner. However, the modifier ‘to make me sleep’ contains processes in itself: sleep is a behavioural process and the Patient is the behaver. Alternatively, ‘enough (drink) makes me sleep at night’ would be a material transformative process with ‘enough drinks’ as the actor and the Patient as the goal. The Patient may be presenting alcohol as being able to control her behaviour. Alternatively, the Patient needs the help of the alcohol to control her behaviour. However, the Doctor ignores the social or psychological aspect of her problem and continues with his agenda.

A number of patterns have emerged from a transitivity analysis. I will start by considering the processes pattern. The majority of the processes are material transformative. For material processes, the most natural present tense is the continuous form’ (Thompson, 2014). ’It is possible to use them in the simple form but this needs some extra contextualisation’ (Thompson, 2014). The process is contextualised with ‘over here’ in line 4. The doctor reformulated the patient’s attributive process and partly used the patient’s own words- ‘does it burn’. The material processes are further contextualised with adverbial modifiers: ‘from here on this side to this side’(line 9), ‘into the back’ (line10) and ‘when’ (line 13). The only continuous form is present perfect continuous in lines 18 and 32. This tense is used to put emphasis on the duration but not the result of an action or a finished action that influenced the present. The dominant tense of the text is present tense which is used for actions in the present or facts. According to Halliday, clauses represent ‘patters of experience’ (Halliday, 1994: 108 in Google Books, 2017) and the central part of this pattern is the process. The Doctor, who focuses on ‘doing’, uses material processes in the present tense to construe the nature of the patient’s problem. The Doctor uses mostly material processes and constructs the patient and the alcohol as actors in relation to each other. This affirms that the Doctor ignores the social or psychological aspect of the Patient’s problem and attributes the Patient’s problem to her heavy drinking. ‘The problem’ as the patient ‘means’ it, is different to how the Doctor views it.

 

I will move onto a participant pattern. Line 19, where the patient introduces a new topic of drinking, signals a shift in the text. The doctor chose to follow this topic and used a ‘nominal structure’ (Schleppegrell:23 in The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2017) to elicit more information for a diagnosis. The doctor chose to present a process (drinking) as a ‘thing’ that can then participate further in the process. ‘In the registers of everyday life, we typically express meanings in structures that relate congruently to those meanings’ (Schleppegrell: 23 in The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2017); we express processes through verbs. Nominalisation enables the presentation of meaning in a structure that is not congruent with the grammatical form and ‘repackages’ information (Schleppegrell: 23 in The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2017). The Doctor made ‘drinking’ sound more objective and fact like, thus de-personalised the message by omitting the agent of the action – ‘the patient’. This ‘grammatical metaphor’ enables meanings to be distilled and compacted. (Schleppegrell:24 in The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2017). The subsequent turns, which constitute almost fifty per cent, feature alcohol as the participant. This explains why the patient was ‘not quite sure that the doctor has addressed her actual problem’.

Another pattern is that of circumstance selection. The text is characterised by a variety of circumstances that exist in its clauses. The patient makes use of a contingency type of a circumstance ‘if’ in line 6 when using an analogy to describe her problem. The text makes strong use of temporal and spatial placement. Location spatial circumstances occur in lines 4, 7 and 9-12, corresponding to the Doctor’s ‘where’ enquiries. Temporal circumstances occur in lines 13-15, corresponding to the Doctor’s ‘when’ enquires. There is circumstance of manner ‘worse’ in line 20. This is followed by circumstances of quantity in lines 22-24, corresponding to the Doctor’s ‘how much’ questions and temporal circumstances of extent in lines 32-34, matching the Doctor’s ‘how long’ questions.

Furthermore, lexical cohesion is also an aspect of field. The language used is informal and the nouns refer to parts of the body at the start of the text and alcohol after the turning point in the text. The Doctor also uses evaluative lexis ‘heavily’, suggesting that he is in a position to pass judgments.

Secondly, I will consider Tenor. Tenor in SFL refers to the relative social roles, statuses and stances of language users which are closely related to interpersonal meaning (The Open University, 2017). Mood and modality Modality express attitude and shed light on interpersonal relationships. According to Eggins (1994: 196 in Google Books, 2017), ‘the systems of Mood and Modality are the keys to understanding the interpersonal relationships between interactants’. Patient’s line 19 contains deontic modality ‘should not’ used to advice not to do something, usually because it is wrong. Modal adjuncts of probability ‘probably’ and ‘maybe’ occur in lines 16, 18 and an evaluative comment adjunct ‘especially’ occurs in line 21. There is no modality in the Doctor’s utterances. This may reveal how the patient is positioned and account for the hierarchical relationship.

The Doctor uses non-lexical vocalization to signal that he is listening and to encourage the patient in lines: 1, 8, 10, 22. The patient signals annoyance in line 26 (‘humph’). This suggests that she is uncomfortable with the Doctor’s line of questioning and foreshadows her uncertainty about whether he ‘addressed her actual problem’. The patient then giggles twice in line 35 which is a rather odd and immature non-lexical vocalization in a consultation with a GP. The doctor is the only one who interrupts and the interruptions occur in lines 4, 8, 13, 17 and 27. The last three occurrences are particularly salient as the Doctor also changes the topic, signalling that he has enough information to consider a diagnosis. The Doctor is clearly controlling the turn and topic management.  On the other hand, only the Patient pauses in lines 2, 14, 21, 23, 33, suggesting hesitation. This dynamic is typical of an asymmetrical relationship between the interlocutors. The Doctor has more power and the Patient is the vulnerable one. Following this, I will briefly consider speech functions of this interactive text.

The majority of the speech acts are direct (declarative/statement and interrogative/question. According to (Wierzbicka 2003:4), Brits are indirect. This can be seen in line 20. The doctor knows that drinking (alcohol) would make any pain worse. He is therefore flouting a maxim of manner, thus creating an implicature. Only the Doctor has access to requests for information. The Patient’s interrogative clause in line 2 functions as a rhetorical question rather than a question, directed at the Doctor. The Doctor is presented as the one needing information and the Patient as the one possessing it. This is also determined by the context. The speakers evidently have an unequal status.

Thirdly, I will consider Mode. Mode refers to the textual metafunction of language which is concerned with the overall organisation of the clause and the text. Context plays a crucial role in mode. Language is used to accompany a physical activity (examination). Both of the interlocutors shared the same space, able to see what was going on. The interlocutors rely on there being a minimal communicative distance between them, and this is reflected in their language through the use of exophoric references.  The interlocutors refer to the patient’s parts of the body without having to specify these in great detail: ‘over here’ in line 4, ‘right here’ (line 7); ‘here on this side to this side’ (line 9) ‘up here’ (line 11) or ‘in the front’ (line 12). There are also a number of anaphoric references: pronoun ‘it’ and a determiner ‘that’ which refers back to ‘heartburn’, or ‘pain’ in lines 4, 6, 9, 10, 11 and 13. The pronoun ‘it is also used to refer to food and drink in lines 15 and 26. Despite the minimal communicative distance, the Patient ‘hesitates briefly at the door’ at the beginning of the consultation and ‘hesitates at door, turns back’ at the end. This supports my point that the Patient lacks Genre competence.

Spoken language is characterised by non-clausal material which includes inserts and syntactic non-clausal units (Biber et al. 1999 in Scott Thornbury and Diana Slade, 2006). Inserts, which do not enter into syntactic relations with other structures, consist of response words ‘yeah’ in lines 5, 13, ‘ya right’ in line 7, and ‘oh no’ in line 26. A discourse marker (well) occurs in line 14 and 16. False starts are in the Patient’s lines 6 and 7. This may suggest that the conversation was getting tense for the Patient. There is only one repair in the Doctor’s line 29, suggesting that the Doctor had a predetermined script.

Mode is also largely concerned with theme and rheme. The theme of the clause is that which sets the local context for the rest of the clause to develop. It signals the point of departure of each clause and the new information that it will present. (Schleppegrell:2 in The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2017). The themes are mostly interpersonal (wh-question words) and topical (participant, circumstance, process). They are all unmarked: the subject is the theme in declarative sentences and polar interrogatives; the wh-question is the theme in content interrogatives. The Theme and Rheme pattern is consistent with the participant and circumstances pattern. The theme is constant in lines 1- 2 (what); 4-6 (it); 9-12 (pain); 13-14 (when), 18-19(the patient ‘I’). Line 19 signals a shift in the text: in the subsequent lines, the theme is alcohol and/or the Doctor’s wh- (content) questions. The polar questions occur at the onset of the consultation and the theme is the pain. The rheme is mostly ‘the location’ of the pain (lines 9-12), and the amount of alcohol towards the end of the text. In a cohesive text, a rheme becomes the theme of the next clause. However, there is no such consistency in this text. There is no new theme in line 2, for example. The only instance of the rheme (‘drinking’) becoming the theme is in the salient lines 19-20-with that rheme then remaining the main theme (drinking/alcohol). The Patient’s initial theme was ‘a sour stomach’. The fact that it is the Doctor who is in control of the theme/the topic, points to the power imbalance and can explain why the Patient was ‘not quite sure that the doctor has addressed her actual problem’.

This brings me to my next point of Genre. Martin (2010) observed that thematic choices, lexical chains and cohesive patterns are to some extent influenced by a genre. Genre is concerned with the flow of information in the discourse. According to Swales, ‘A genre comprises a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes’. The Doctor, who is the ‘expert’ member, sets the rationale for the genre. ‘The rationale shapes the schematic structure of the discourse and influences and constrains choice of content and style’. (Swales 1990:58 in Google Books, 2017).

The topical themes, discussed above, function as the point of orientation for the experiential meaning of the clause. In a cohesive text, rheme is generally related to new information and theme to given, predictable information. This can be anything assumed to be part of the audience’s general knowledge. The principle of old before new is built into our perception of time and the genre of a story. The Patient may find it difficult to clearly identify the topic of the Doctor’s utterances because there is no thematic continuity in the text. The Doctor has chosen ‘drinking’ as the theme in line 20 to emphasise its importance. ‘Theme realises the ‘angle’ of the story and the New elaborates the field, developing it in experiential terms (Martin, 1992a:452 in Isfla.org, 2017). Martin (1992a in Isfla.org, 2017) also points out that rheme is ‘listener-oriented’. This is evident in the Patient’s utterances: rheme supplies new information, i.e. the answer to the Doctor’s questions. The Patient did not make an independent, active decision about the rheme. The text is coherent in terms of a medical consultation as a genre: the Doctor adheres to a pre-determined script. He is concerned with procedures: medical procedures and GP practice procedures, i.e. the time allowed for a consultation, for example.

Genres have been defined as staged, goal-oriented social processes (Martin, 1992 in Isfla.org, 2017). The GP consultation is ‘a goal-seeking activity’ (Byrne and Long, 1976: 31 in Google Books, 2017) with both the doctor and patient actively seeking to achieve their individual objectives. Genre looks beyond the aspects of register and looks at how field, tenor and mode work together according to the social purpose of the text in a given context and culture. Genres are described in terms of having generic stages, which together are seen as contributing to the social function. A consultation might follow the stages: Greeting and relating^ Discovering the reasons for attendance^ Conducting a verbal or physical examination or both^ A consideration of the condition^ Detailing further treatment^ Terminating the interview (Byrne and Long, 1976: 132 in Google Books, 2017). The stages evident in the text and field notes do not show a consideration of the condition. Please see the Appendix for a breakdown of the stages. Detailing further treatment stage is limited to ‘at end of consultation, patient is given advice to reduce drinking’. This may have contributed to why the Patient was ‘not quite sure that the doctor has addressed her actual problem’.

In conclusion, the Patient has limited specialised knowledge, evident in the informal description of her problem. She lacks competence in formulating her problem and does not seem to be equipped to demand information from the Doctor to make a joint, informed decision about her treatment. This may reveal how the patient is positioned and why she was ‘not quite sure that the doctor has addressed her actual problem’.

Having access to ‘genre chains’ (Bazerman, 2013), such as medical notes and the GP’s performance indicators would enable an analyst to better answer the initial research question.

Word count 3058

References

Bazerman (2013) ‘Genre as social action’ in The Open University (2016) EE817 Readings [Online]. Available at http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/lib/open/detail.action?docID=957494

Google Books. (2017). Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. [online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sS7UXugIIg8C&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dq=Eggins,+%E2%80%98the+systems+of+Mood+and+Modality+are+the+keys+to+understanding+the+interpersonal+relationships+between+interactants%E2%80%99&source=bl&ots=xbvsNnWuWk&sig=Ijm7ldLVbuTnkwJhzUvgVMaAgrU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQrPjn3OjSAhXlIcAKHTxdDNgQ6AEIGjAA#v=onepage&q=Eggins%2C%20%E2%80%98the%20systems%20of%20Mood%20and%20Modality%20are%20the%20keys%20to%20understanding%20the%20interpersonal%20relationships%20between%20interactants%E2%80%99&f=false [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

Google Books. (2017). Learning to Consult. [online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Y64xtaCzDykC&oi=fnd&pg=PA178&dq=A+consultation+might+follow+the+stages:+Greeting+and+relating%5E+Discovering+the+reasons+for+attendance&ots=281bIqZDUb&sig=ExwcXIqIvoB5ugz7RZW2h1uZPM8#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

Google Books. (2017). Patterns, Meaningful Units and Specialized Discourses. [online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BVUzAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA118&lpg=PA118&dq=clauses+represent+%E2%80%98patterns+of+experience%E2%80%99+(Halliday+1994:+108+in+)&source=bl&ots=BHqiFnNCxy&sig=wrW2rge0Zb-4tXzPMBIPpZaa0p8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjgpqCL2ejSAhUpAsAKHeqiAgoQ6AEIJDAA#v=onepage&q=clauses%20represent%20%E2%80%98patterns%20of%20experience%E2%80%99%20(Halliday%201994%3A%20108%20in%20)&f=false [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

 

Google Books. (2017). Scientific Discourse and the Rhetoric of Globalization. [online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZOeemjNdmdoC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=%E2%80%98The+rationale+shapes+the+schematic+structure+of+the+discourse+and+influences+and+constraints+choice+of+content+and+style%E2%80%99.&source=bl&ots=1PH3J85_Qx&sig=AUSSY7Y6fWIGmUwLd6LfQEsnzug&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj91LGD4OjSAhWKJsAKHXsWDSsQ6AEILjAD#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%98The%20rationale%20shapes%20the%20schematic%20structure%20of%20the%20discourse%20and%20influences%20and%20constraints%20choice%20of%20content%20and%20style%E2%80%99.&f=false [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

Isfla.org. (2017). SFL Online Papers. [online] Available at: http://www.isfla.org/Systemics/Print/Theses/ForeyThesis/Ch03.pdf) [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

Martin (2010) from ‘Language, register and genre’ section ‘Genre’ in The Open University (2016) EE817 Readings [Online]. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/pluginfile.php/1807858/mod_resource/content/1/ee817-u18-txt001_genre.pdf

Scott Thornbury and Diana Slade (2006) ‘The Grammar of conversation’, in The Open University (2016) EE817 Readings [Online]. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=916388&section=4 (accessed 10 January 2017)

The Open University (2017) Unit 16 ‘Introducing systemic functional linguistics’, EE817 Week 18 Study Guide [online] available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=916399&section=3.2

Thompson (2014) Introducing Functional Grammar, pages 94–114 of Chapter 5 in The Open University (2016) EE817 Readings [Online]. Available at http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/lib/open/detail.action?docID=1319003

The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. (2017). 1st ed. [ebook] Taylor and Francis. Available at: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/lib/open/reader.action?docID=957494&ppg=216 [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017].

 

Appendix

 

 

Genre stages

 

I Greeting and relating

 

At 11.05 am Doctor S collects her from reception and briskly leads the way into the consultation room. Doctor enters consultation room first. By the time patient arrives at the door of the consultation room, doctor is already sitting behind his desk typing something into the computer. Patient hesitates briefly at the door. Doctor asks patient to enter and sit down across the desk from where he is sat. The doctor’s computer screen is not visible to patient. When patient is seated, doctor looks up, smiles briefly, and greets her with ‘Good morning’.
II Discovering the reasons for attendance

 

Without pause, doctors asks: ‘What can I do for you today?’ Patient begins to explain problems with stomach. Doctor listens briefly (for approx. 20 secs?), then interrupts and begins to ask specific questions (as recorded in Extract).
III Conducting a verbal or physical examination or both

 

interrupts and begins to ask specific questions (as recorded in Extract).
IV A consideration of the condition

 

 
V Detailing further treatment

 

At end of consultation, patient is given advice to reduce drinking.
VI Terminating the interview

(Byrne and Long, 1976: 132) https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/english/documents/innervate/12-13/13-zara-de-belder-q33120-health-communication-pp-106-21.pdf

Patient gets up to leave, as doctor turns to computer and begins typing. Patient hesitates at door, turns back. Doctor doesn’t seem to notice. Patient says goodbye again and leaves consultation room.

 

 

Process type/circumstance/participants (field)/mood (tenor)

1.       D Mental cognitive   Senser: Patient

Phenomenon: sour stomach

Interrogative/question

Direct speech act – a speech act where there is a direct relationship between the sentence structure of an utterance and its communicative function

 

Other-request for the D’s service

 

 
2.       P Relational Identifying   Token:what (specific)

Value: sour stomach (general)

Interrogative/question

Other function?

 
3. Minor clause   Token Declarative/statement  
4.       D Material transformative Place Actor-it (sour stomach)

Goal-(you)P?

Interrogative/question

 

 
5.       P response     response  
6. Mental cognitive abandoned changed into

Material transformative voluntary

  Senser-P

Phenomenon-(a heartburn/sour stomach)

Like-circumstance

 

Actor-D

Goal-needle

 

Analogy

Declarative/statement  
7. Existential Place Existent-pain sour stomach Declarative/statement  
8.       D Non-lexical vocalisation

Function-encouragement

    Non-lexical vocalisation

Function-encouragement

 
9.       P Material transformative Place Actor-it (the pain) sour stomach

Goal- (P?)

Declarative/statement  
10.   D Material transformative Place Actor-it (the pain) sour stomach

Goal (P?)

Interrogative/question  
11.   P Relational attributive Place Carrier-it (the pain) sour stomach

Attribute –all right; all up here

Declarative/statement  
12. Minor clause Place   Declarative/statement  
13.   D Material transformative Time Actor-P

Goal-that (the pain) sour stomach

Interrogative/question  
14.   P Material transformative Time Actor-P

Goal-something wrong (food)

Declarative/statement  
15.   D Material transformative Time Actor-P

Goal-it (food)

Interrogative/question  
16.   P Minor clause Modal adjuncts   Declarative/statement  
17.   D Minor clause     Interrogative/question-statement  
18.   P Material transformative Modal/conjunctive  adjuncts

Less-duration time referring to 15 which was also time

Actor-P

Goal-????cannot infer at all

Declarative/statement  
19. Material transformative

Deontic modal

(manner) Actor-P

Goal-unspecified but some kind of liquid alcohol

 

Actor-P

Goal-which (drinking /alcohol)

Declarative/statement  
20.   D Material transformative

Nominalisation

Manner Actor-drinking nominalisation

Goal-it (the pain sour stomach)

Interrogative/question  
21.   P Minor clause Modal/conjunctive  adjuncts   Declarative/statement  
22.   D Material transformative Manner

Quantity

Actor-P

Goal-(the amount of alcohol-how much)

Interrogative/question  
23.   P Mental cognitive

Material transformative (going into behavioural)

actor and goal are both the patient

Quantity Senser-P

No phenomenon

 

Actor-enough (the drink/the alcohol)

Goal-P OR

Actor-P (assuming ellipsis)

Goal –P

Declarative/statement  
24. That is quite a bit -Relational attributive Quantity carrier-that (drink alcohol)

attribute-quite a bit

Declarative/statement  
25.   D Minor clause     Interrogative/question  
26.   P Relational attributive Quantity Carrier-it (alcohol)

Attribute-morelike 10 at night

Declarative/statement  
27.   D Minor clause Time   Declarative/question  
28. Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
29.   D Material abandoned

False start-what do you-material changed into what type of drinks?

  Actor-P but abandoned Interrogative/question  
30.   P Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
31. Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
32.   D Material transformative voluntary Time

manner

Actor-P

Goal-

Interrogative/question  
33.   P Relational attributive Time Actor-P

Goal

Declarative/statement  
34.   D relational attributive time Carrier-P

Attribute-married

Interrogative/question  
35.   P Minor clause   Non-lexical vocalisation

Function:?

Declarative/statement  

 

Participant patterns
1.       D Mental cognitive

 

Patient

  Senser: Patient

Phenomenon: sour stomach

Interrogative/question

Direct speech act – a

 

Other-request for the D’s service

 

 
2.       P Relational Identifying

 

pain

  Token:what (specific)

Value: sour stomach (general)

Interrogative/question

Other function?

 
3. Minor clause   Token Declarative/statement  
4.       D Material transformative Place Actor-it (sour stomach)

Goal-(you)P?

Interrogative/question

 

 
5.       P response     response  
6. Mental cognitive abandoned changed into

Material transformative voluntary

 

pain

  Senser-P

Phenomenon-(a heartburn/sour stomach)

 

Actor-D

Goal-needle

 

Analogy

Declarative/statement  
7. Existential

pain

 

Place Existent-pain sour stomach Declarative/statement  
8.       D Non-lexical vocalisation

Function-encouragement

    Non-lexical vocalisation

Function-encouragement

 
9.       P Material transformative Place Actor-it (the pain) sour stomach

Goal- (P?)

Declarative/statement  
10.   D Material transformative Place Actor-it (the pain) sour stomach

Goal (P?)

Interrogative/question  
11.   P Relational attributive Place Carrier-it (the pain) sour stomach

Attribute –all right; all up here

Declarative/statement  
12. Minor clause Place   Declarative/statement  
13.   D Material transformative

patient

Time Actor-P

Goal-that (the pain) sour stomach

Interrogative/question  
14.   P Material transformative

patient

Time Actor-P

Goal-something wrong (food)

Declarative/statement  
15.   D Material transformative Time Actor-P

Goal-it (food)

Interrogative/question  
16.   P Minor clause Modal adjuncts   Declarative/statement  
17.   D Minor clause     Interrogative/question-statement  
18.   P Material transformative Modal/conjunctive  adjuncts

Less-duration time referring to 15 which was also time

Actor-P

Goal-????cannot infer at all

Declarative/statement  
19. Material transformative

Deontic modal

(manner) Actor-P

Goal-unspecified but some kind of liquid alcohol

 

Actor-P

Goal-which (drinking /alcohol)

Declarative/statement  
20.   D Material transformative

Nominalisation

drink

Manner Actor-drinking nominalisation

Goal-it (the pain sour stomach)

Interrogative/question  
21.   P Minor clause Modal/conjunctive  adjuncts   Declarative/statement  
22.   D Material transformative

patient

Manner

Quantity

Actor-P

Goal-(the amount of alcohol-how much)

Interrogative/question  
23.   P Mental cognitive

Material transformative (going into behavioural)

actor and goal are both the patient

Quantity Senser-P

No phenomenon

 

Actor-enough (the drink/the alcohol)

Goal-P OR

Actor-P (assuming ellipsis)

Goal –P

Declarative/statement  
24. That is quite a bit -Relational attributive Quantity carrier-that (drink alcohol)

attribute-quite a bit

Declarative/statement  
25.   D Minor clause     Interrogative/question  
26.   P Relational attributive Quantity Carrier-it (alcohol)

Attribute-morelike 10 at night

Declarative/statement  
27.   D Minor clause Time   Declarative/question  
28. Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
29.   D Material abandoned

False start-what do you-material/behavioural (drink) changed into what type of drinks?

  Actor-P but abandoned Interrogative/question  
30.   P Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
31. Minor clause     Declarative/statement  
32.   D Material transformative voluntary Time

manner

Actor-P

Goal-

Interrogative/question  
33.   P Relational attributive Time Actor-P

Goal

Declarative/statement  
34.   D relational attributive time Carrier-P

Attribute-married

Interrogative/question  
35.   P Minor clause   Non-lexical vocalisation

Function:?

Declarative/statement  

 

Processes and circumstances pattern

1.       D Mental cognitive  
2.       P Relational identifying  
3.    
4.       D Material transformative Place
5.       P    
6. Material transformative  
7. Existential place
8.       D    
9.       P Material transformative Place
10.   D Material transformative Place
11.   P Relational attributive Place
12.   Place
13.   D Material transformative Time
14.   P Material transformative Time
15.   D Material transformative Time
16.   P    
17.   D    
18.   P Material transformative  
19. Material transformative Manner
20.   D Material transformative Manner
21.   P    
22.   D Material transformative Manner Quantity
23.   P Mental, material, behavioural? Quantity
24. Relational attributive Quantity
25.   D    
26.   P Relational attributive Quantity
27.   D   Time
28.   P    
29.   D    
30.   P    
31.    
32.   D Material transformative Time manner (quantity)
33.   P Relational attributive Time
34.   D Relational attributive Time
35.   P    

 

Process types
  Mental cognitive Relational identifying Relational attributive Existential Material transformative
Doctor Patient-pain   Drink –duration   Pain-patient(location)

Pain-patient (location)

Pain-patient (time/occurrence /when)

Patient-food (when)

Drink-pain (make it worse)

Patient-drink

Patient-drink

Patient Patient-drink (amount) Pain-pain Pain(2)-location

Drink-amount

Drink-duration

pain Doctor-needle (2)

Pain-patient (location)

Patient-food (when)

Patient-?

Patient-drink

 

 

Material transformative
  Doctor Patient
4 Pain-patient(location)  
6   Doctor-needle (2)
9   Pain-patient (location)
10 Pain-patient(location)  
13 Pain-patient (time/occurrence /when)  
14   Patient-food (when)
15 Patient-food (when)  
18   Patient-?
19 Patient-drink (when)  
20 Drink-pain (make it worse)  
22 Patient-drink (amount)  
32 Patient-drink (time/heavily)  

 

Word classes

What do You mean By A sour stomach
Direct object

Pronoun

 

Phenomenon

Verb

3rd person singular present

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

senser

Mental

Cognitive

Circumstance?

Preposition

Object of preposition

Determiner

Adjectival modifier

Noun singular

What Is A Sour stomach? A heartburn like a heartburn or something.
Pronoun

Determiner

 

 

token

3rd  person singular present

 

 

Relational

Identifying

 

Determiner

Adjectival modifier

Nominal subject

 

Value

does it Burn Over Here?
Auxiliary verb 3rd person singular

 

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

Actor (mentioned)

Material

Transformative

Involuntary

Verb base form (you-goal-not mentioned)

Circumstance

Adverbial modifier

I Think it like
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

Senser

Mental

Cognitive

 
if you Take A needle And stick
Circumstance? Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

Actor

Material

Transformative

Voluntary

Verb base form

 

Adverbial clause modifier

 

 

Determiner

Noun singular

 

Goal

Coordinating conjunction

Material

Verb

Base form

there is A pain Right here
Adverb (stick)

 

 

Existential

Verb 3rd person singular present

Determiner undefined

Noun

(attribute of is)

Existent

Circumstance

Adverbial modifier

And and then it Goes From here on this side to this side.
Adverbial modifier

 

circumstance

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

actor

Material transformative

Verb 3rd person singular present

 

 

Circumstance

Preposition

Adverb (complement of preposition)

Preposition

Determiner

Noun

Preposition

Determiner

noun

does it Go Into the back?
Auxiliary

3rd person singular present

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

actor

Material

Transformative/involuntary

Verb base form

None of the processes

Are perceptive-feel

Circumstance

Preposition

Determiner

noun -Object of preposition

 

it is All Up here
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

carrier

Verb

3rd person

Singular

 

Relational

Attributive

Circumstance

Adverbial modifier

 

 

Attribute

it is All right
pronoun

Nominal subject

Carrier

Relational/attributive

Verb

3rd person

 

Attribute

Adverb

Attribute

when do You get That
Adverbial modifier

circumstance

Auxiliary

3rd person singular present

 

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

 

actor

Verb

Base form

 

Material

Transformative

Determiner

Direct object

 

goal

 

when I eat Something wrong (postmodifier)
Adverbial modifier Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

3rd person singular present

 

Material

Transformative

Noun singular

Direct object (wrong-adjectival modifier)

goal

How soon after you eat it
Circumstance

Adverb preposition

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

Verb base form

 

Material

Transformative

Personal pronoun

Direct object

goal

Maybe less I Have cheated
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

Verb

3rd person singular

Verb

Past participle (conjunct)

Material

Transformative

I have been drinking
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

Auxiliary

3rd person singular present

Auxiliary

Verb past participle

Material

Transformative

 
which I should not Have done
determiner

direct object

goal

 

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

Modality

Verb modal

 

Negation

Modifier

Material

transformative

Auxiliary verb base form

verb past participle
Circumstance?
does drinking make It (pain) worse
Auxiliary

Verb 3rd person singular

Agent

Noun singular

actor

Material

Verb

Base form

Goal

 

 

Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

Circumstance

Adjective comparative

I do Not know
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

Senser

Verb

3rd person

Singular present

Negation modifier Mental cognitive no phenomenon

Verb base form

enough To make me Sleep At night
Adjective material Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

Verb Adverb
that is Quite A bit
Nominal subject

carrier

Relational attributive Attribute

Adverb-determiner-noun

attribute

it is More Like ten At night
Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

carrier

Relational attributive Attribute

More-adjective comparative

Preposition?

At night-preposition, noun

How long have you Been drinking That heavily
Circumstance

Adverbial modifier (adverb/adjective)

  Personal pronoun

Nominal subject

actor

Auxiliary verb past participle

(verb, gerund, present participle)

Material transformative

Circumstance

Adverbial modifier (determiner and adverb)

How long is that
Circumstance?

Adjectival complement (adverb/adjective)

attribute

Verb

3rd person singular present

Relational attributive

Nominal subject

carrier

Since I Have been Married
Circumstance?

Preposition

Pers. pronoun

Nominal subject

Passive carrier

Auxiliary

Present/past participle

Relational attributive

Verb Past participle

 

attribute

 

Theme / Rheme

What do You mean By A sour stomach
theme rheme
What Is A Sour stomach? A heartburn like a heartburn or something.
theme Rheme
does it Burn Over Here?
theme Rheme
I Think it like
theme Rheme
if you Take A needle And stick
theme Rheme
there is A pain Right here
theme Rheme
And and then it Goes From here on this side to this side.
theme Rheme
does it Go Into the back?
theme Rheme
it is All Up here
theme Rheme
it is All right
theme Rheme
when do You get That
theme Rheme
when I eat Something wrong (postmodifier)
theme Rheme
How soon after you eat It
theme Rheme
Maybe less I Have cheated
theme Rheme
I have been Drinking
theme Rheme
which I should not Have Done
theme Rheme
does drinking make It (pain) Worse
theme Rheme
I do Not Know
theme Rheme
enough To make me Sleep At night
Rheme
that is Quite A bit
Rheme
it is More Like ten At night
theme Rheme
How long have you Been drinking That heavily
theme Rheme
How long is That
theme Rheme
Since I Have been Married
theme Rheme

 

nouns verbs adjectives adverbs Prepositional phrases    
  Do you mean          
Stomach is Sour        
  Does it burn     Over here    
  think          
  take          
  stick          
  is     Right here    
  goes     From here on this side to this side

Into the back

   
        Up here    
      All right?      
        Up here in the front    
  get          
  eat          
    wrong        
  cheated   Maybe less      
Heartburn            
Needle            
Pain            
Side?            
Back?            
Front?            
Hour            
Drinking     worse      
Carbonation drink   How much      
  make          
alcohol sleep   enough      
At Night? Drink          
Drinks x2 I’ve been married          
drinking     worse      
Day            
Night x2?            
Vodka            
Ginger ale            
Years            
Something?   wrong        
             

 

Extract

1 D Hm hm (.3) now what do you mean by a sour stomach?
2 P (1.1) What’s a sour stomach? A heartburn
3 like a heartburn or someth[ ing.
4 D [ Does it burn over here?
5 P Yeah
6 It li- I think- I think it like- If you take a needle
7 and stick [ ya right [ ….there’s a pain right here [
8 D [ Hm hm [ Hm hm [ Hm hm
9 P and and then it goes from here on this side to this side.
10 D Hm hm does it [go into the back?
11 P [It’s a:ll up here. No. It’s all right
12 [Up here in the front.
13 D [Yeah And when do you get that?
14 P (1.3) Wel:l when I eat something wrong
15 D How- how soon after you eat it?
16 P Wel:l probably an hour maybe [ less.
17 D [ About an hour?
18 P Maybe less I’ve cheated and I’ve been
19 drinking which I shouldn’t have done.
20 D Does drinking make it worse?
21 P Ho ho uh ooh Yes (1.0) especially the carbonation and the alcohol.
22 D Hm hm how much do you drink?
23 P (1.5) I don’t know enough to make me
24 sleep at night and that’s quite a bit.
25 D One or two drinks a day?
26 P O:h no no no humph it’s more like ten [at night
27 D [How many drinks

– a night.

28 P At night.
29 D Whaddya ta- What type of drinks? I [ ((unclear))
30 P [ Oh vodka yeah
31 vodka and ginger ale.
32 D How long have you been drinking that heavily?
33 P (1.4) Since I’ve been married.
34 D How long is that?
35 P ((giggle)) Four years. ((giggle))

(Mischler, 1984; cited in Harvey and Koteyko, 2013, pp. 14–15)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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