Review of Stephen Ball’s article ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’. (Canterbury Christ Church University Module 2.1)

I will review Stephen Ball’s article ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’. This article was published in 2003. The author, Stephen Ball, is Karl Mannheim Professor of the Sociology of Education at the University of London. The article was published in The Journal of Education Policy as a response to education policy impact. Ball is the Co-editor of Journal of Education Policy and has produced a significant corpus of work within the fields of ‘policy sociology’ and the sociology of education.

Ball communicates a key contemporary idea of performativity and relates it to developments in Lifelong Learning. This text assimilates ideas from post-modernism, globalisation and Neoliberalism and traces the impact which they have upon how Lifelong Learning is understood. The structure of this review will follow the structure of the paper. I will attempt to examine the origins, processes and effects of performativity in Lifelong Learning. I will also integrate the qualitative character of Freire’s thinking.

The opening paragraph captures the readers’ attention with Boyle’s (2001 in Ball, 2003) point of how we ‘take our collective pulse 24 hours a day with the use of statistics’ This points to the increased role of numeration and monitoring in our society. Ball immediately made me appreciate the meaningless fascination with my iPhone and its applications and features measuring my walking distance daily average, my heart rate and body temperature. Ball then addresses globalisation and uses figurative language which encourages readers to visualise educational reform in terms of climate change and natural disasters or spread of infectious diseases. He equates education reform with a ‘policy epidemic’ and ‘an unstoppable flood.’ (Ball, 2003)

As conveyed in the title of the paper, this article examines a historically new phenomena-the concept of performativity and what Lyotard (1984) calls the terrors of performativity. Performativity is, alongside with the market and managerialism, a policy technology which forms the education reform ‘package’ (Ball, 2003). Performativity can be described as a system of classification and numeration in relation to education and the performance of teachers and students. It captures the understanding of the system in which teachers are compared, judged, measured and categorised. The neoliberal approach to performativity by the governments, OECD (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the World Bank is juxtaposed to a postmodernist theoretical approach.

OECD presents performativity as an attractive alternative to bureaucracy and views the restructuring of educational institutions as more conducive to the market. Performativity is a form of de-regulation and a commitment to a ‘lesser government.’ Performativity is presented as a new mode of state regulation which makes it possible to govern in an advanced liberal way. The new role of the central management is to set the overall framework rather than to regulate. Other roles include performance management producing objective data based on monitoring systems. Performativity improves accountability, drives excellence and creates efficiencies. The processes of performativity correspond to the processes of neo-liberalism, the dominant economic ideology since the 1980s, which advocates a free market approach to policymaking. Neoliberalism promotes privatisation and deregulation. Neoliberalism is antipathetic to the public sector and provides an economic interpretation to the non-economic domain. Professional and managerial cultures in education have been restructured around private, rather than public ethics.

Ball’s approach differs in his focus of concern. Ball’s work is influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-François Lyotard. Ball examines social impacts of policy. He examines the policy process-how is policy disseminated and interpreted in practice. Ball argues that performativity is a new system of control shaped by the configuration of power relations which transforms human beings into networks of power and allows indirect management of education system. The government can drive the system and processes inside the system by manipulating outcomes through targets and performance indicators. Ball’s analysis of performativity is based on Foucault’s idea that modern institutions are designed to control our souls through surveillance (Discipline And Punish Book Summary – Foucault, no date). Applying Foucault’s thinking to his analysis of performativity, Ball concludes that the performative culture creates an environment designed to train individuals to police themselves and behave in a way that will gain approval from the management. Authority is imposed psychologically, rather than physically through self-governance and striving for excellence.

Ball briefly remarks on managerialism and describes the new managers in Foucauldian terms as ‘technicians of behaviour’, whose task is ‘to produce bodies that are docile and capable’ (Foucault 1979a: 294 in Ball). Ball makes some points which I have encountered when reading the work of Paulo Freire, The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Foucault’s concept may link to Freire’s concept of domestication. (Freire, Ramos, and Shaull, 1996). The managers’ instruments of domestication used to realise their task are appraisals, performance reviews and forms of performance related pay. The processes of performativity can be framed in Freire’s theoretical approach as prescription which controls the behaviour of the oppressed.

Performativity has implications for teachers’ individual and collective identity and involves a change in the way that teachers view themselves. Performativity also impacts working conditions, results in heavier workloads, increased surveillance and feelings of job insecurity. Organisations, teachers and colleagues are valued for their productivity alone. Being measured and ranked creates existential anxiety and teachers become what Balls refers to as ‘ontologically insecure’ (Ball, 2003), constantly doubting their own self-worth against the performance targets. Performativity does not encourage risk taking and therefore dulls innovation and creativity. Teachers are conditioned to distrust themselves and their own judgement. The effects of performativity link to Freire’s concept of oppression. Reducing teachers to producers of performances and replacing an individual’s value with comparison by performance is impoverishing and dehumanising. The new policy regime replaced values with value and introduced inauthentic relationships. Teachers only value what can be measured rather than measure what is valuable. Teachers are also being forced to ‘teach to the test’ and adopt an authoritarian form of education-banking concept of education.

‘Banking education’ views a teacher as the authority of knowledge who knows everything while the student does not know anything. Students are considered to be passive recipients of knowledge. (Freire, Ramos, and Shaull, 1996). First order activities, i.e. meeting the students’ needs, are subordinate to the demands of performativity. Ball describes this as ‘values schizophrenia’ (Ball, 2003). This phenomenon could be described as sub oppression with teachers being the new oppressors and students being the oppressed.

The new relationship between a teacher and their own self is marked by the new ethical systems. Educators are required to understand private sector and ‘live an existence of calculations’. This requires individualisation, adopting competitive relationships and making an enterprise of ourselves (Ball, 2003). Pursuing competitive advantage results in replacing Trade Union and professional identity with corporate community affiliation. Cooperation is replaced with competition. Teachers and organisations have to play the ‘improvement game’ and present themselves as an auditable commodity. This may involve manipulation of data and may involve producing fabrications. Truthfulness is not the point and what is valued is effectivity rather than honesty. Fabrications are a similar concept to Plato’s sophistry and Jean Baudrillard’s simulacra or an argument that is more concerned with looking and sounding right than actually accessing any truth. The concept of fabrications has validated my feelings and provided me with the vocabulary to articulate my subjective experiences within my profession.

These pathologies of creative compliance (Ball, 2003) could be linked to Freire’s concept of proscribed behaviour. Proscribed behaviour is the forced conformity to prescription. These new systems or maladaptations are the by-product of performativity. Ball comments that performativity is promiscuous. Promiscuity is seen as an opportunity for some educators to make a success of themselves, while for others it foreshadows inauthenticity and resistance. The use of the word promiscuous is very effective and captures the phenomenon of unreflective opportunism and dispensing with commitments which enable some teachers to thrive in the terrors of performativity.

The struggle for the teacher’s soul lies in the extent to which a teacher allows performativity to affect their self-image and alter their consciousness or the extent to which a teacher internalises the new ethical systems. According to Beattie,

Conversation is, without doubt, the foundation stone of the social world-human beings learn to talk in it, find a mate with it, are socialised through it, rise in social hierarchy as a result of it, and, it is suggested, may even develop mental illness because of it.

(Beattie, 1983, p.2 in Maybin/Mercer/H and Maybin, 2007)

People are defined through dialogue and the above quote complements Freire’s idea behind antidialogics (Freire, Ramos, and Shaull, 1996). Ball presents the reader with a table, indicating ‘discursive interventions.’ Teachers may not be able to define themselves and reflect on reality in their own words and may only be conditioned to use the discourse of performativity. Ball calls this a form of ventriloquism. New teachers may not have been exposed to as many relevant voices and views on education as possible. The struggle for the teacher’s soul is a struggle against internalising the discourse of performativity and becoming dependent on the new managerial culture. This idea echoes Freire’s fight for liberation and humanization of the oppressed and his idea of adhesion of the oppressed to the oppressor.

I like the way Ball utilises the voices of education professionals involved in his research. These voices enable Ball to get behind the objective and rational facade of performativity and examine the personal, subjective ways in which policies work on and through the lives of ordinary people. The quotes by education professionals provide powerful pieces of evidence for Ball’s arguments. The interviews revealed widespread frustrations with working conditions. Key themes which emerged from these interviews are the personal anguish and inner conflict of teachers over the inability to teach in the way that they wished. Utilising these voices offers the reader a counter-narrative to the neoliberal agenda. These voices enable the reader to recognise that the performative discourse does not define all valid possibilities.

Ball concludes with comments on commodification of knowledge. The commodification results in instrumentalism. Knowledge is tied to performance, specifications, learning outcomes and most of all, vocational objectives. Knowledge is divorced from personal commitments and dedication; it is no longer associated with discovering new ideas or self-analysis. Perhaps Ball could have commented on the role of students in the oppression. Education may no longer be dialogical. The neo-liberal and consumerist approach of students in their relationship to learning and knowledge may be a contributing factor. Students may have adopted a reductionist orientation towards knowledge and only value the knowledge on which they are going to be tested.

Personally, I initially found Ball’s idea of comparing the state of the education system to a mental illness rather unusual. The title of the paper also evoked images of exorcism. Though schizophrenia and educational reform are two issues which may seem distantly related, Ball then linked them to promiscuity. While these are unique and risqué metaphors, they nevertheless illustrate Ball’s points and present his arguments in an original and captivating way. The metaphor of promiscuity became more evident to me once I became familiar with some of Foucault’s critics. Ball’s interpretation of the struggle for the teacher’s soul is a reminder of Zygmunt Bauman’s criticism of Foucault’s theory. Bauman states that most people today are seduced, and not coerced, into following society’s norms.

Many of the issues that Ball raised feature in my professional context. I find myself devoting more time and energy to accounting for my work as a teacher than to building relationships with my students. I also found myself looking for external validation and defining my self-worth by my lesson observation grades. There is also a culture of teachers being expected to work unpaid overtime. I am a conscientious professional, always willing to go the extra mile. My children, and at times their friends, became accustomed to laminating and cutting up my resources at home. They do not complain when I miss their school events. However, coming into work over an hour early and staying at work late is physically impossible for me due to my family commitments. Teachers should not be made to feel guilty for not being able to attend every departmental meeting, parents evening or open evening.

In conclusion, I have found Ball’s arguments convincing. Performativity is closely linked to accountability and quality assurance. Quality assurance based on objective, quantitative and automated analysis of collected data may seem like an attractive alternative to bureaucracy. Ball is not arguing against accountability per se. Rather, he is arguing against ‘romanticising the private sector’ and against the processes of performativity, illustrating its effects. Ball does not offer us any solutions. He provides us with tools to name our oppression which is a step towards liberation.

Bibliography

Ball, S.J. (2003) ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’, Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), pp. 215–228. doi: 10.1080/0268093022000043065.

Discipline And Punish Book Summary – Foucault (no date) Available at: https://www.macat.com/books/discipline-and-punish-analysis/read/annotation0/5 (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

Freire, P., Ramos, M.B. and Shaull, R. (1996) Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin Books.

Maybin/Mercer/H and Maybin, A.H. (2007) Using English. Edited by Janet Maybin, Neil Mercer, and Ann Hewings. 2nd edn. United Kingdom: Routledge.

PART 2

I will discuss critical theory. Critical theory is a paradigm used to view the education system. I will explain Bourdieu and Freire’s key ideas and how they are relevant to my professional context. Critical pedagogy (CP) is concerned with structural inequality and sees class conflict as a driving force in society. CP draws ideas from Marx who argues that the society is made up of two classes, the oppressors and the oppressed, with divisions drawn primarily on socio-economic lines. Critical pedagogy rejects the functionalist viewpoint of meritocracy. According to critical theorists, schools are not equalisers as claimed by the proponents of functionalist theory. On the contrary, schools are instrumental in socialising students to replicate unjust and unequal social relationships. CP draws on the hidden curriculum (HC) in explaining educational issues. Hidden curriculum transmits implicit messages, ideas and beliefs that legitimise inequality (Partnership and Concepts, 2013b). Some argue that ruling ideologies and the hidden agenda is inconspicuously hidden behind the liberating qualities of education. As a result, educational institutions pass on false class consciousness onto the working class who do not realise they are being exploited. For example, competition is ingrained in students from an early age so they become socialised to compete for jobs once they leave school. Alfie Kohn, the author of ‘The Case Against Competition’, stated that competition is to self-esteem as sugar is to teeth. (Kohn, 1987). Pierre Bourdieu argued that middle class students are able to achieve more success because they possess four types of capital.

Pierre Bourdieu was a renowned French sociologist and public intellectual who made significant contributions to general sociological theory and to theorizing the link between education and culture. Pierre Bourdieu conceptualises most aspects of social life in terms of field, habitus and capital. Fields constitute sites of struggle over a central stake or types of capital: economic (material possessions and money), cultural (knowing cultural norms, how to behave and what to do in various social contexts), social (networks) and symbolic (capital having a particular meaning in a particular field). Academic qualifications are seen as cultural capital. The struggle is waged over these resources but various types of capital are also used in these struggles for domination. A particular type of capital is distributed and deemed valuable differentially within a field at any given time. An educational institution can be considered as a field whose members possess different types and amounts of capital. Each field involves a set of players, of agents who are engaged in practices and strategies on the basis of a habitus. Habitus gives rise to a sense of what is attainable or what actions are impossible for players (agents) occupying various positions within an organisation. The phenomenon of capital is intensified by the effects of habitus. Habitus is conditioned by social origins and subsequent experiences. It provides agents with a framework for accomplishing appropriate practice. Doxa is a set of rules in a particular field. It is “the universe of possible discourses”. (What are the concepts of ‘Doxa’ and ‘Habitus’ that Pierre Bourdieu created, no date). Based on doxa the group in the particular field will evaluate the individual and prescribe him/her a legitimate position in the field. These rules are also a potential to give rise to common action. The idea of doxa can be linked to Freire’s idea of praxis.

Bourdieu extends the idea of the HC by focusing on cultural capital and argues that schools value a particularly type of cultural capital: white, upper middle class, well educated. Those who do not poses that kind of cultural capital are unintentionally or intentionally punished. Cultural reproduction occurs as schools privilege culturally specific ways of acting through linguistic and cultural practices that are embedded in the curriculum (for example standard English) that may not be familiar to all students. Students from different cultures other than the dominant one are at an inherent disadvantage because their specific forms of cultural knowledge are not valued in school setting. Schools also have deep seated, socialised norms of understanding and doing called the habitus which reflects the habitus of labour relations (for example the sound of the school bell). Habitus allows subordinate groups to be reproduced and the dominant group to maintain its status without resorting to physical repression or violence. Through the habitus, dominant groups can oppress subordinate ones without explicitly punishing them. This is called symbolic violence and works to effectively legitimise inequality.

Michael Gove stated that working class children ‘must learn to be middle class to get on in life’ (Graham, 2014). He claims that working class children need to become more comfortable with middle-class social setting such as restaurants, theatres and offices if they are to succeed. Having varied hobbies can help give working class children “shared cultural experiences” with those from middle-class backgrounds. These “shared cultural experiences” will help working class children increase their confidence in navigating “middle class world” and make them feel less isolated in a new social environment. The Sutton Trust has published considerable research on personal statements submitted to the same department of the same Russell Group University by students with the same A-level results. The research found that independent school applicants are able to draw on the most prestigious experiences involving high-level work placements. For example, one 18-year-old applicant’s experience includes working “for a designer in London, as a model … on the trading floor of a London broker’s firm … with my local BBC radio station … events planning with a corporate 5 star country hotel … in the marketing team of a leading City law firm … and most recently managing a small gastro pub.” For state school applicants, work-related activity is more likely to be a Saturday job or a school visit to a business. (Jones, 2012). This is an example of social capital. Visiting restaurants, theatres and offices may not be enough for working class children to succeed.

The practices described by education professionals in Stephen Ball’s article ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’ (Ball, 2003) can be understood in terms of a teaching habitus. The social implications of education reform can be framed in terms of hysteresis. Bourdieu employed the term ‘hysteresis’ to indicate a cultural mismatch between habitus and the changing rules of a field. There is a disparity between new opportunities associated with performativity and teachers whose habitus does not allow them to value the field change. Their internal struggle is an expression of hysteresis-a mismatch between their notion of professionalism and what is required of them under the performativity regime. The teaching profession privileges public good over private interests. Education professionals share a commitment to professional standards and notions of autonomy and integrity. This ethical system may conflict with competitiveness and self-interests. Some teachers took advantage of the new opportunities in a changing field, embraced performativity and became ‘promiscuous’. Others became ontologically insecure. Others could not adapt to the changing organisational conditions and the reframing of teaching field through market mechanisms. The only way to maintain the integrity of their professional habitus was to change the field entirely. Teachers who wish to preserve their integrity within the changing field, are forced to resolve the dissonance between the organisational changes and their teaching habitus by limiting time with their family to manage the increased workload.

Bourdieu’s concepts are also relevant for new trends in English Language Teaching and non-native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs). Traditionally, only Native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs) taught English and English as a Second Language (ESOL). NNETs entered the field of English Language teaching and challenged the taken-for-granted assumptions (doxa). Some of these beliefs are that NNESTs are inferior to NESTs. Péter Medgyes concludes his article in the ELT journal with a message that natives and non-natives have an equal chance to become successful teachers, but the routes used by the two groups are not the same. The strategies for struggle over the field deployed by NNESTs and NESTs reflect differences in the types of capital these two groups possess (linguistic capital, qualifications). NNESTs’ linguistic performance is regarded as inferior to NESTs’ by the mainstream community. Therefore, NNESTs’ opportunities in the academic workplace are undermined by the unequal power relations. We could also frame this issue within a Freirean frame. The underlying power relationships are being addressed by NNESTs through praxis (a process for change through dialogue and reflection. An example of praxis and struggle towards liberation could be TEFL Equity Advocates. TEFL Equity Advocates was set up in 2014 in order to speak out for equal professional opportunities for NESTs and NNESTs in ELT. Some of the most renowned ELT professionals such as Jeremy Harmer and Scott Thornbury, as well as organisations such as the British Council Teaching English team have already expressed their strong support.

Paulo Freire is the author of the bestselling Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Freire is one of the most influential critical educators of the 20th century. He is considered one of the founders of critical pedagogy. Critical pedagogy is a teaching method that aims to help in challenging and actively struggling against any form of social oppression and the related customs and beliefs. (Themes, 2016). Freire also played a crucial role in developing a highly successful literacy campaign in Brazil. (Anonymous, 2010). The central premise of Freire’s theory is that no education is neutral – it can be used for domestication or liberation.

Freire criticised what he termed “banking education” in which students learnt by rote and were seen as empty vessels to be filled with learning. He called for a liberating education based on dialogue between teachers and learners – a learning process that respected people as active and creative subjects. (Freire, 2009). Freire’s liberatory pedagogy revolves around the central idea of “praxis”. The key concept of praxis is that reality is not fixed. Rather, it can be transformed through individuals’ critical reflection and dialogue as a means of developing critical consciousness for transformation. Students who can critically reflect upon reality will deepen their consciousness and take transformative action to change the world for the better. Freire believed that banking education prevented students from ‘knowing’ the world and seeing it as something which can be transformed which in turn prevented the liberation and freedom of the oppressed. “The act of knowing involves a dialectical movement that goes from action to reflection and from reflection upon action to a new action.” (Freire 1972). Banking education socialises students to accept injustice and inequality and not to question authority. It is anti-critical thinking. Transformation or a change can be achieved through the process of praxis or a dialogue and reflection. Freire sees dialogue as part of the history of the development of human consciousness. ‘Dialogue is a moment where humans meet to reflect on the reality as they make and remake it. (Shor & Freire, 1987, p. 98 in (Au, 1974). Students can therefore improve their knowledge and their ability to transform reality. The idea of transformation opposes Bourdieu’s idea of inherited capital and reproduction of social structures.

An opposing model of education to the Banking model is the Problem Posing Model. Banking education is education as a practise of domination. Banking education means that students are passive recipients of knowledge and mechanically memorizing it from the teacher’s narrative content. Problem posing education emphasizes a different approach to education as a practice of freedom. Education is made up of acts of cognition rather than transferals of information. Students are regarded as conscious beings rather than objects. Problem-posing occurs through a process of decoding or breaking down reality through analysis: students are presented with a pedagogical problem or a situation that needs to be decoded. In the Problem Posing Model of Education, the oppressed groups must fight for their freedom. An important key concept in this is emancipation or a liberation from oppressive social relations. Social critique leads to social change. Problem posing education is considered to be superior to traditional ‘banking education’.

 

 

 

I have attempted to use Freire’s approach and participatory learning in my teaching practice without realising it. My former employer, a community based organisation, was a Further Education provider. The organisational objective was to provide learning and skills which will facilitate pathways to active community cohesion and create pathways to employment and a fulfilled lifestyle. I designed and delivered a Digital Parenting with ESOL course. I have adopted the participatory approach or Content Based Instruction by incorporating themes that were of interest to my learners. The themes, such as bullying, cyberbullying, online radicalisation or sexting, derived from the parents’/students’ real life issues. The themes were used for the specific purpose of developing learners’ spoken and written skills in English. Language learning was then used as a means of solving problems. The parents/students were able to utilise practical, proactive parenting strategies and learn how to guide their children in appropriate and safe interactions on the Internet. They were also able to identify their own individual learning needs, explore future learning opportunities and use ICT to enhance learning. Perhaps the most important outcome was exploring digital communication with Schools, Local Education Authorities and education services, alongside with investigating local and online support and services. I have sourced ideas for activities and resources from Reflect ESOL which, unknown to me at the time, is an innovative approach to adult learning and social change, which fuses the theories of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire with participatory methodologies. (Reflect ESOL, 2009). I have used a similar approach in my Group Tutorials sessions with my 16-19 year old learners. We used documentaries to generate a discussion about rape, addiction and racism. However, some might say that introducing PSHE (Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education) into curriculum and thus socialising students into respectable citizens is a functionalist approach.

Freire also speaks of four levels of consciousness:

1) Magical consciousness: people experience themselves as unable to transform their personal or socio-economic position at this level of consciousness. An example could be learners who have a strong culture of anti-academicism. Research by Paul Willis illustrates another example. The subjects in Willis’ research rejected the idea of a meritocratic society and developed a counter school culture (Willis, 1981). They rejected beliefs that hard work would lead to success and saw no value in qualifications. The subjects rejected the false class consciousness that was being passed onto them. However, as a result, rejecting education led them to the most exploitative jobs offered by capitalism.

2) Naive consciousness: At this level, people know that their situation can be transformed but do not believe in their abilities to do so. I would say that learners with a fixed mind-set may be at this level of consciousness. (Dweck, 2006)

3) Critical consciousness: People recognise how oppression occurs and how they can fight it. They are also aware of their abilities.

My Digital Parenting learners, for example, reached this level of consciousness and acquired some Really Useful Knowledge in how to file a complaint to their child’s school or a local authority.

Another example could be the HEIM Project (Higher Education, Internationalisation and Mobility: Inclusion, Equalities and Innovations), researching Marginalised Minorities in Higher Education Institutions and supporting Roma students in Higher Education. (231, 2016)

4) Political consciousness; on this highest level people discover from their perception of reality that others share their perception of reality, and they also share some of the same problems. This leads to that people combine their strengths and try to influence politics and negate the situation of oppression. According to Freire “Nobody liberates nobody, nobody liberates themselves alone: human beings liberate themselves in communion.” Tumblr

Perhaps teachers can eventually reach this level by refusing to surrender to the terrors of performativity. They can demand differentiated CPD and regular feedback to help them feel less ‘ontologically insecure.’

My former colleague introduced me to the work of Phil Beadle. In his book, How to Teach Literacy, Beadle states that he is ‘for the working class being held worthy of intellectual respect’. He goes on to state:

‘…the rich children who are educated separately from ours are allowed to grow up with the sense that they alone have the erudition, the mastery and the skills of articulation to properly engage with the political arena. Furthermore, the elites have been indoctrinated to believe that they (somehow) have the ownership of the language’.

‘…literacy is political…equipping children from the lower social orders with heavyweight skills of expression, when combined with teaching them their place in the hierarchy, is the most potently subversive political act available to any human. (Beadle, 2015)

Beadle then urges his readers to use his book to teach children that ‘there are rules, and they are worth learning.’ However, he warns teachers ‘not to make a theocracy out of them (out of the rules).’ He concludes by advising that ‘to properly nourish and inspire, the line between work and play should not always be immediately visible.’ (Beadle, 2015)

I can apply both Bourdieu’s idea of capital and Freire’s concept of banking education to the work of Phil Beadle. I became more aware of the difference between functional and critical literacy. Functional literacy as well as the increase use of standardised testing can be seen as a form of banking education (Freire, Ramos, and Shaull, 1996). In conclusion, I find both theorists useful for my professional practice. I would like to explore Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (What are the concepts of ‘Doxa’ and ‘Habitus’ that Pierre Bourdieu created, no date) in schools and Freire’s concept of the Easter experience (Au, 1974) further in the future.

Bibliography

231, hs (2016) Higher Education Internationalisation and Mobility : Research projects : Centre for Higher Education and Equity Research (CHEER) : University of Sussex. Available at: http://m.sussex.ac.uk/education/cheer/researchprojects/rise (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

Anonymous (2010) Rethinking education as the practice of freedom: Paulo Freire and the promise of critical Pedagogy. Available at: http://www.truth-out.org/archive/item/87456:rethinking-education-as-the-practice-of-freedom-paulo-freire-and-the-promise-of-critical-pedagogy (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Au, W. (1974) Epistemology of the oppressed: The dialectics of Paulo Freire’s theory of knowledge. Available at: http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/PDFs/05-2-06.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Ball, S.J. (2003) ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’, Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), pp. 215–228. doi: 10.1080/0268093022000043065.

Beadle, P. (2015) Literacy – Commas, colons, connectives and conjunctions Phil Beadle’s How To Teach Series: Amazon.co.uk: Phil Beadle: Books. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Literacy-Commas-connectives-conjunctions-Beadles/dp/1781351287 (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

Crossman, A. (2016) Pierre Bourdieu, a biography in brief get to know the life and work of this important sociologist. Available at: http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Pierre-Bourdieu.htm (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

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Freire (2009) Available at: http://www.reflect-action.org/freire (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Freire, P., Ramos, M.B. and Shaull, R. (1996) Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin Books.

Graham, G. (2014) Working class children must learn to be middle class to get on in life, government advisor says. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/10671048/Working-class-children-must-learn-to-be-middle-class-to-get-on-in-life-government-advisor-says.html (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Jones, S. (2012) The personal statement: A fair way to assess university applicants? Available at: http://www.suttontrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/JONESPERSONALSTATEMENTS-2.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Kohn, A. (1987) The Case Against Competition – Alfie Kohn. Available at: http://www.alfiekohn.org/article/case-competition/ (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

Maybin/Mercer/H and Maybin, A.H. (2007) Using English. Edited by Janet Maybin, Neil Mercer, and Ann Hewings. 2nd edn. United Kingdom: Routledge.

Partnership, G.S. and Concepts, L. (2013a) Hidden Curriculum Definition – The Glossary of Education Reform. Available at: http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/ (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Partnership, G.S. and Concepts, L. (2013b) Hidden Curriculum Definition – The Glossary of Education Reform. Available at: http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/ (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Reflect ESOL (2009) Available at: http://www.reflect-action.org/reflectesol (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

Taylor, L. (2013a) From Critical Theory to Postmodernism – Foucault, Horkheimer and Adorno « E-Learning. Available at: https://louisecharente.wordpress.com/2013/04/19/from-critical-theory-to-postmodernism-foucault-horkheimer-and-adorno/ (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

Taylor, L. (2013b) From Critical Theory to Postmodernism – Foucault, Horkheimer and Adorno « E-Learning. Available at: https://louisecharente.wordpress.com/2013/04/19/from-critical-theory-to-postmodernism-foucault-horkheimer-and-adorno/ (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

The editor interviews interview with professor Stephen Ball, editor of journal of education policy (2009) Available at: http://www.educationarena.com/pdf/sball_transcript.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

Themes, G. (2016) Paulo Freire and the role of critical Pedagogy. Available at: http://daily-struggles.tumblr.com/post/18785753110/paulo-freire-and-the-role-of-critical-pedagogy (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

What are the concepts of ‘Doxa’ and ‘Habitus’ that Pierre Bourdieu created? (no date) Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-concepts-of-Doxa-and-Habitus-that-Pierre-Bourdieu-created (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

WHO (2014) WHO | Schizophrenia. Available at: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/ (Accessed: 11 June 2016).

Willis, P. (1981) Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs (Morningside Books): Amazon.co.uk: P Willis: 9780231053570: Books. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Learning-Labor-Working-Class-Morningside/dp/0231053576 (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

Citations, Quotes & Annotations

231, hs (2016) Higher Education Internationalisation and Mobility : Research projects : Centre for Higher Education and Equity Research (CHEER) : University of Sussex. Available at: http://m.sussex.ac.uk/education/cheer/researchprojects/rise (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

(231, 2016)

Anonymous (2010) Rethinking education as the practice of freedom: Paulo Freire and the promise of critical Pedagogy. Available at: http://www.truth-out.org/archive/item/87456:rethinking-education-as-the-practice-of-freedom-paulo-freire-and-the-promise-of-critical-pedagogy (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Anonymous, 2010)

Au, W. (1974) Epistemology of the oppressed: The dialectics of Paulo Freire’s theory of knowledge. Available at: http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/PDFs/05-2-06.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Au, 1974)

Ball, S.J. (2003) ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’, Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), pp. 215–228. doi: 10.1080/0268093022000043065.

(Ball, 2003)

Beadle, P. (2015) Literacy – Commas, colons, connectives and conjunctions Phil Beadle’s How To Teach Series: Amazon.co.uk: Phil Beadle: Books. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Literacy-Commas-connectives-conjunctions-Beadles/dp/1781351287 (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

(Beadle, 2015)

Crossman, A. (2016) Pierre Bourdieu, a biography in brief get to know the life and work of this important sociologist. Available at: http://sociology.about.com/od/Profiles/p/Pierre-Bourdieu.htm (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Crossman, 2016)

“He is well known for pioneering such terms as “symbolic violence,” “cultural capital,” and “habitus.”” (Crossman, 2016)

Discipline And Punish Book Summary – Foucault (no date) Available at: https://www.macat.com/books/discipline-and-punish-analysis/read/annotation0/5 (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

(Discipline And Punish Book Summary – Foucault, no date)

Dweck, C. (2006) Mindset | What is Mindset. Available at: http://mindsetonline.com/whatisit/about/ (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

(Dweck, 2006)

Freire (2009) Available at: http://www.reflect-action.org/freire (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Freire, 2009)

Freire, P., Ramos, M.B. and Shaull, R. (1996) Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin Books.

(Freire, Ramos, and Shaull, 1996)

Graham, G. (2014) Working class children must learn to be middle class to get on in life, government advisor says. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/10671048/Working-class-children-must-learn-to-be-middle-class-to-get-on-in-life-government-advisor-says.html (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Graham, 2014)

Jones, S. (2012) The personal statement: A fair way to assess university applicants? Available at: http://www.suttontrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/JONESPERSONALSTATEMENTS-2.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(Jones, 2012)

Kohn, A. (1987) The Case Against Competition – Alfie Kohn. Available at: http://www.alfiekohn.org/article/case-competition/ (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

(Kohn, 1987)

Maybin/Mercer/H and Maybin, A.H. (2007) Using English. Edited by Janet Maybin, Neil Mercer, and Ann Hewings. 2nd edn. United Kingdom: Routledge.

(Maybin/Mercer/H and Maybin, 2007)

Partnership, G.S. and Concepts, L. (2013a) Hidden Curriculum Definition – The Glossary of Education Reform. Available at: http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/ (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

(Partnership and Concepts, 2013a)

Partnership, G.S. and Concepts, L. (2013b) Hidden Curriculum Definition – The Glossary of Education Reform. Available at: http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/ (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

(Partnership and Concepts, 2013b)

Reflect ESOL (2009) Available at: http://www.reflect-action.org/reflectesol (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

(Reflect ESOL, 2009)

Taylor, L. (2013a) From Critical Theory to Postmodernism – Foucault, Horkheimer and Adorno « E-Learning. Available at: https://louisecharente.wordpress.com/2013/04/19/from-critical-theory-to-postmodernism-foucault-horkheimer-and-adorno/ (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

(Taylor, 2013a)

Note: The persistent pursuit of equality actually creates the grounds for more coercion. Take for example standardized testing which is supposed to treat everybody the same. But standardization also provides the tools for control, making everybody the same makes them easier to control. Social coercion is the best way to manipulate the thing you’re trying to understand.

Note: The narrow sense of “Critical Theory” was coined by a group of German philosophers and social theorists known as “the Frankfurt School”. This began with Horkheimer and Adorno and stretched to Marcuse and Habermas. They distinguished “critical” from “traditional” theory saying that a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation, “to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them” (Horkheimer 1982, 244). In a broader sense critical theories aim to explain all the circumstances that enslave humans. This group of thinkers is still active today.

Taylor, L. (2013b) From Critical Theory to Postmodernism – Foucault, Horkheimer and Adorno « E-Learning. Available at: https://louisecharente.wordpress.com/2013/04/19/from-critical-theory-to-postmodernism-foucault-horkheimer-and-adorno/ (Accessed: 8 July 2016).

(Taylor, 2013b)

The editor interviews interview with professor Stephen Ball, editor of journal of education policy (2009) Available at: http://www.educationarena.com/pdf/sball_transcript.pdf (Accessed: 25 June 2016).

(The editor interviews interview with professor Stephen Ball, editor of journal of education policy, 2009)

Themes, G. (2016) Paulo Freire and the role of critical Pedagogy. Available at: http://daily-struggles.tumblr.com/post/18785753110/paulo-freire-and-the-role-of-critical-pedagogy (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

(Themes, 2016)

What are the concepts of ‘Doxa’ and ‘Habitus’ that Pierre Bourdieu created? (no date) Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-concepts-of-Doxa-and-Habitus-that-Pierre-Bourdieu-created (Accessed: 26 June 2016).

(What are the concepts of ‘Doxa’ and ‘Habitus’ that Pierre Bourdieu created?, no date)

WHO (2014) WHO | Schizophrenia. Available at: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/ (Accessed: 11 June 2016).

(WHO, 2014)

Willis, P. (1981) Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs (Morningside Books): Amazon.co.uk: P Willis: 9780231053570: Books. Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Learning-Labor-Working-Class-Morningside/dp/0231053576 (Accessed: 18 August 2016).

(Willis, 1981)

 

 

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